Prophet Muhammad’s Last Sermon
Date delivered: 632 A.C., 9th day of Dhul al Hijjah, 10 A.H. in the
‘Uranah valley of 
Mount Arafat.

After praising, and thanking God, he said: “O People, listen well
to my words, for I do not know whether, after this year, I shall ever
be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very

O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as
Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred
trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners.
Treat others justly so that no one would be unjust to you. Remember
that you will indeed meet your LORD, and that HE will indeed reckon
your deeds. God has forbidden you to take usury (riba), therefore all
riba obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital , however, is
yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity. God has
judged that there shall be no riba and that all the riba due to `Abbas
ibn `Abd al Muttalib shall henceforth be waived.

Every right arising out of homicide in pre-Islamic days is
henceforth waived and the first such right that I waive is that
arising from the murder of Rabi`ah ibn al Harith ibn `Abd al Muttalib.

O Men, the Unbelievers indulge in tampering with the calendar in
order to make permissible that which God forbade, and to forbid that
which God has made permissible. With God the months are twelve in
number. Four of them are sacred, three of these are successive and one
occurs singly between the months of Jumada and Sha`ban. Beware of the
devil, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he
will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of
following him in small things.

O People, it is true that you have certain rights over your women,
but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them
as your wives only under God’s trust and with His permission. If they
abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and
clothed in kindness. Treat your women well and be kind to them, for
they are your partners and committed helpers. It is your right and
they do not make friends with anyone of whom you do not approve, as
well as never to be unchaste…

O People, listen to me in earnest, worship God (The One Creator of
the Universe), perform your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during
the month of 
Ramadan, and give your financial obligation (zakah) of
your wealth. Perform 
Hajj if you can afford to.

All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over
a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a
white has no superiority over a black nor a black has any superiority
over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is
a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one
brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to
a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not,
therefore, do injustice to yourselves.

Remember, one day you will appear before God (The Creator) and you
will answer for your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of
righteousness after I am gone.

FAITH WILL BE BORN. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand
words which I convey to you. I am leaving you with the Book of God
(the QUR’AN*) and my SUNNAH (the life style and the behavioral mode of
the Prophet), if you follow them you will never go astray.

All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and
those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words
better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness O God, that
I have conveyed your message to your people.

*The Qur’an: Revealed to Prophet Muhammad during the period from
610-632 AC. The first five verses revealed are: (1) Read in the name
of your Lord, Who created. (2) Created man out of a clot that clings
(in the womb). (3) Read and your Lord is the Most Bountiful. (4) Who
taught by the pen. (5) Taught man that which he knew not.


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